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Hungarian emigrants at the turn of the 20th century Before WWI, approximately 1. Unfortunately, the full reconstruction of the events is difficult due to the lack of sources. On the one hand, many people left the country without official papers or passports and without the approval of the authorities.
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On the other hand, archival documents were badly damaged during the 20th century. Although most of the personal documents of immigrants can be found at the U. Bureau of Immigration, in many cases the identification of Hungarian settlement names and family names is difficult due to misspellings.
Therefore, successful research is not guaranteed.
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In this post we offer a brief survey of this social process and its international context from a genealogical point of view. We also want to help the interested researchers to find useful and interesting sources.
Hungarian emigration in a European context In the 19th century, the first major wave of emigration started from the Western part of Europe, mainly from England, Ireland, Germany and Scandinavia, to the American continent.
Shortly after this, Northwest Europe was followed by Southeast Europe with some delay.
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In those countries, emigration assumed considerable proportions following From that time the order of sending countries significantly changed: Italy, Austria-Hungary and Russia took the lead.
According to the estimate of historian Julianna Puskás, one of the most distinguished experts of the subject, between and about 1. The emigration wave reached its peak around Inpersons, inpersons were registered as emigrants, domicile work forum transcription címek means that 7 emigrants could be found among every thousand inhabitants at that time. Regarding ethnic composition, in the beginning Slovakians emigrated in the largest numbers, but later, during the peak periodHungarians Magyars formed the relative majority of emigrants.
In the period ofHungary and Austria gave the most emigrants from Europe. However, considering the full emigrational timelineHungary belonged to the middle field of the continent regarding the emigration rate emigrants per population. But following the turn of the century, an equalization took place between the various regions.
The Hungarian-inhabited regions mainly the middle part of the kingdom caught up to the northeastern counties. Migration to the USA Source How do we know that how many Hungarians left the country? Before the registration of emigration data was not compulsory for public authorities.
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But, of course, there were exceptions. For example, Zemplén County collected data on emigrants and published them in the annual reports of the sub-prefect alispán and at the county sessions.
But these were not structured, organized calculations based on statistical methods. Furthermore, notes in connection with remigrants are also deficient. Another problem was that emigrants left the country without any formal administration for instance, without passport application.
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Julianna Puskás made some interviews with emigrants. However, the most reliable information are provided by the U.
Bureau of Immigration. Foreign Sources II. Ellis Island Notes of the U. Bureau of Immigration have been accessible online since These are one of the most important sources for family researchers: passenger lists of arriving ships contain 51 million records from to We can use advanced search in the database to narrow down the search by family name, for birth place and date, for ethnicity, even for the ship name or for the port of departure.
If you do not get any hit for first try, do not worry, you can search for similar names, too. Research is sometimes complicated due to different ways of spellings, transcription errors, hard-to-read handwriting etc.
Search for Your (E)migrant Ancestors!
The US officials worked on the basis of ship manifests which were created at the port of departure. Not just passengers but even ships can be listed according to their names and arrival date. The ship manifests contain thousands of passenger records, sometimes, however, these are rather incomplete and imperfect. Unfortunately, we cannot search for birth place only. Place of birth and last permanent residence were usually missed but the country of origin was always indicated.
The archival material of Cunard Line Company Kingdom of Hungary made a contract with this company into set up a direct marine line between Fiume and New York can be found at the Maritime Archives and Library in Liverpool, according to the database. However, passenger lists are from ships disembarked at European ports only.
There are not any passenger lists of ships departed from Europe and arrived in the USA. But these can be important, too, because the most emigrants returned to their motherland or commuted between Hungary and New York for several times. The transatlantic passenger steamship Carpathia at the port, II. Other European archives, ports Tip: If you know the port where your ancestor departed from, turn to the local archives! For example Bremen City Archives Stadtarchiv Bremen keeps passenger lists, and other notes domicile work forum transcription címek the port.
By contrast, the Archives of Rijeka in Croatia Državni Arhiv U Rijeci does not keep any passenger lists or personal data, unfortunately.
Hungarian Archives: Registers about emigrants in Hungary — turn to the local archives! Where were documents possibly created about the emigration?
Domicile work forum transcription címek people crossed the border illegally, without passports.
Their first traces can be found in the material of ship companies and ports. You might be luckier if your ancestor insisted on the legal process and applied for passport at the local authority. More information might be found if we use the catalogues of local archives.
TÁNC Kora reneszánsz táncok Európában Kis túlzással azt mondhatnánk, hogy a reneszánsz az európai történelem legtáncosabb korszaka volt. Hévvel táncoltak a nemesek, a polgárok és a parasztok, nem kímélték a lábukat a királyok, fejedelmek, főurak sem, s a pápák, püspökök is szívesen áldoztak e szenvedélynek.
In accordance with the regulations of the Ministry of Interior, after the turn of the century emigrants were administrated by towns and villages. For instance, registers of emigrants from Pásztó and Kazár are still preserved in the Nógrád County Archives. Passport cases fell under the authority of the sub-prefect alispántherefore, it is worth to ask the local archivists about it.
If the answer is positive, the files might contain the following data: Name, Occupation, Marital status, Residence, Age, Religion, Purpose of journey, Destination, Endurance, Ethnicity was not askedInteresting: Ferenc Szili Hungarian archivist-historian researched the rich passport material of the Somogy County Archives. National Archives of Hungary NAH Our archives holds mostly general information about the topic: extracts, reports about the emigration restriction law articles, social effects etc.
The right of issuing passports belonged to the minister of interior untilhowever, travellers applied for them at the local authorities, municipals, etc. Now, these documents are kept at the local archives. In our institution, most of the documents on emigration and passport cases are preserved in the Archives of the Ministry of Interior. Looking through the preserved documents Kthe image of a strict Hungarian state appears, that wants to limit the emigration. According to the files, the aim was to strengthen the border guard and to detect agents, who helped the emigrants.
In the indexes even the names of emigrants are indicated. Search for the records in the Tip: Repertory of the Ministry of Interior is online. Afterparallel with the increasing number of cases, personal files related to emigration disappeared.
The Ministry of Interior dealt with immigration only in general terms, the particular cases were restricted to county level. In addition, it is important to stress that the archival material of the Ministry of Interior was badly damaged by a fire in For instance, the filing and index books after were completely destroyed, which makes the research very complicated.
Furthermore, the passport and immigration files after are deficient, too.
Except for that, there are no relevant documents left with or without personal data from the period between and A special microfilm series were made about the relevant material of K 26, from the period of Roll numbers: 14 — 14 X The series-level inventory is available through the Fond-X program at the research room in Lángliliom street.
Thanks for my colleague, János Kalmár archivist, who drew my attention to this series. List of passengers departed from Fiume in 23 September Kivándorlási Értesítő, 6 October A Kivándorlási Értesítő [Emigrational Bulletin] XH It is worth to browse through this newspaper kept on microfilm in our archives, issued in Fiume Domicile work forum transcription címek from to The original ones can be found in the National Széchényi Library.
The aim of the paper was to propagate the new ferry line between Fiume and New York, to inform the emigrants and people who wanted to emigrate.
Sometimes they even tried to deter people from emigration.
The short-lived journal also published passenger lists and relevant statistics of counties, but the passenger lists are not even nearly complete. Circumstances of emigration If you are interested in further details of emigration, we recommend you the archival material of Szent László Társulat [Society of Szent László].
Reference code: P Priests and nuns were sent for religious and missionary work to American towns, where larger groups of Hungarians settled.
These documents provide several details on the everyday life of Hungarians in the USA at the beginning of the 20th century. If you are interested in the circumstances of shipping, you can find the Hungarian book Ultonia: egy kivándorló hajó története [Ultonia: the story of an emigrant ship] written by Sándor Tonelli economist-journalist in the biggest libraries.
The author was disguised as an emigrant and he passed the day long voyage together with real emigrants. He reported nagyon egyszerű pénzkereseti mód ordeals, motivation, conversations etc. Literature used: Desi K.
Bognar: Hungarians in America. AFI Publication, Mt. Vernon, Studies on Hungarian Connections to Britain and America Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, In: Hungarian Review.